Gestational Diabetes occurs in about 5% of pregnancies, yet figures differ significantly. Studies state that India has a staggering 26.3% of Gestational Diabetes, the highest in the world. Gestational diabetes has increasing prevalence as more women around the childbearing ages are being diagnosed with obesity and are overweight. Evidence shows that Indian women are at a much higher risk of developing glucose intolerance during pregnancy as compared to white women. Therefore, it is essential to talk about gestational diabetes, as the risk of complexities to both mother and child are high.
American Diabetes Association (ADA) defined Gestational Diabetes as diabetes diagnosed during pregnancy that is not overt diabetes. It is diagnosed first time during pregnancy. Gestational Diabetes develops during pregnancy in women. It is typically triggered after week 20 of pregnancy and disappears after childbirth.
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What are the Causes of Gestational Diabetes?
- ● Above the age of 25
- ● Type 2 diabetes or having a relative with type 2 diabetes
- ● Gestational diabetes in a past pregnancy
- ● The previous offspring of the mother weighs more than 9 pounds
- ● Being overweight
What are the Symptoms of Gestational Diabetes?
How is Gestational Diabetes Diagnosed?
- ● Glucose challenge test: You may have the glucose challenge test first. In this test, you will have a blood test an hour after drinking a glucose solution. There is no need to fast for this test. If your blood glucose is excessively high, at least 140, you may have to return for an oral glucose tolerance test while fasting.
- ● Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT): The OGTT estimates blood glucose after you have fasted for eight hours. The doctor will conduct a blood test and provide you with a glucose solution to drink. You will have a blood test each hour for 2 to 3 hours for a specialist to analyze Gestational Diabetes.
High blood glucose levels at, at least two blood test times—fasting, 60 minutes, 2 hours, or 3 hours, means you have gestational diabetes.
What is the treatment for adnexal tumors?
Most of these tumors resolve on their own and require no treatment. The tumor mass reduces with the changes during the menstrual cycle. If detected, your doctor will want to monitor the tumor to check for its status.
Adnexal tumors rarely require surgical treatment. Your doctor may advise you for surgical removal of the tumor only if:
- ● It grows in size
- ● It compresses the other structures and causes symptoms
- ● It develops a solid mass.
After the tumor removal, your doctor will send a sample to test for malignancy. If the tumor cells are malignant, you will need additional treatment to destroy all the malignant cells.
How is Gestational Diabetes Treated?
Insulin does not harm your baby and is typically the best option of diabetes medication for Gestational Diabetes.
What are the Results and Risks Associated with Gestational Diabetes treatments?
Keeping your glucose in control is vital. Management of gestational diabetes decreases extreme perinatal morbidity. It also improves the health and wellbeing of the patient.
If not controlled, Gestational Diabetes can cause complications for both you and your infant, including:
- ● Overweight baby: Higher than normal glucose levels in mothers can make their babies grow excessively huge. Large children, the individuals who weigh 9 pounds or more, are bound to get wedged in the birth canal. These children usually have birth wounds or need a C-section birth.
- ● Premature birth: High glucose may increase the risk of early labor and delivery before the due date, or on the other hand, early delivery might be suggested to you by the doctors because the infant is large.
- ● Respiratory issues for your infant: Infants brought into the world right on time to mothers with Gestational Diabetes may encounter respiratory distress syndrome, a condition that makes breathing troublesome.
- ● Low glucose after delivery: At times children of mothers with gestational diabetes have low glucose (hypoglycemia) not long after birth. Severe hypoglycemic episodes may cause seizures in the infant. Brief feedings and an intravenous glucose shot can restore the glucose level to normal.
- ● Obesity in infant: Infants of mothers who have Gestational Diabetes are at a higher risk of being obese and develop and type 2 diabetes further down the road.
- ● Stillbirth: Gestational Diabetes, if not treated, can lead to the death of the baby either during pregnancy or not long after birth.
- ● Hypertension and pre-eclampsia: Gestational diabetes increases the risk of hypertension, just as pre-eclampsia. Preeclampsia is a severe condition in pregnancy, which presents with hypertension and other symptoms. Pre-eclampsia compromises the lives of both mother and infant.
- ● Having a C-section: You are bound to have a C-section if you have gestational diabetes.
- ● Future diabetes:If you have gestational diabetes, it may present again during a future pregnancy. You likewise have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes as you grow older.