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Lower Segment Cesarean Section (LSCS)

Home Lower Segment Cesarean Section (LSCS)

Introduction

Lower Segment Cesarean Section (LSCS), commonly known as the C-section, is a surgical procedure to deliver the baby by introducing incisions in the abdomen and the uterus of the mother. It is the most common gynecological procedure recommended by doctors, and it is performed only when necessary in cases posing pregnancy-related complications. However, in recent years, many women opt for LSCS if they do not want child delivery to occur naturally (vaginally).

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Why LSCS??

At times, pregnancy can have many complications, either because of the problems in the mother’s body or the fetus. In such cases, natural birth can be risky for both the mother and the child. Some problems related to child delivery can be:

  • ● Abnormal positioning of the baby
  • ● Carrying twins, triplets, or more
  • ● Unprogressive labor
  1. Despite uterine contractions, the cervix might not be dilated enough for natural birth.
  • ● Uterine fibroids
  1. If the mother has large fibroids, it may obstruct the natural way of birth.
  • ● Problems related to the placenta and umbilical cord
  1.  The placenta can block the cervix opening. The umbilical cord can wrap around the baby’s neck or slip into the cervical space before the birth.
  • ● Pelvic abnormalities make it difficult to push the baby vaginally during natural birth.
  • ● Health condition of the baby and mother
  1. If the oxygen supply to the baby is low or in cases of abnormal heartbeat, C-section may be the only option. The mother’s health is also important if she has heart, brain, or uterine problems.
  • ● The choice of a birth giver
  1.  If a woman does not want to give birth naturally and wishes to avoid pain, she can consult her doctor for a C-section. The doctor will then provide a specific course of action and discuss the pros and cons of cesarean delivery.

What are the Risks/Complications Involved in LSCS?

Following the suggestions of gynecologists is mandatory before undergoing LSCS surgery to avoid complications for both the mother and the unborn child. Some of the risks include:

  • ● Heavy postpartum bleeding
  • ● Infection to the mother
  • ● Blood clots can lodge into pelvic, legs, or lung blood vessels.
  • ● Nearby organs, tissues, or nerves can be injured.
  • ● Breathing problems are a possibility in the child in case of premature birth due to C-section.
  • ● The child might get hurt or wounded during the surgical procedure.
  • ● Imbalance of beneficial bacteria in the baby acquired through the birth canal.
  • ● There are chances of a hernia and abdominal pain.
  • ● The recovery time is longer.
  • ● Increased future pregnancy risk
  • ● The odds of heavy bleeding and placental abnormalities increase with the increase in the number of C-sections a woman undergoes. Some women might also endorse undergoing a hysterectomy to avoid future complications to their bodies.

What are the Preoperative Care?

  • ● Any medications or treatments prescribed by the gynecologist must be adhered to strictly.
  • ● Consumption of light, healthy meals, or fasting for 10-12 hours before surgery helps maintain blood sugar levels, avoiding complications.
  • ● Surveil the urine output.
  • ● Monitoring the fetal and the mother’s blood pressure, pulse rate, and oxygen saturation before the LSCS surgery reduces risks.
  • ● Preoperative complete blood count (CBC) tests and screening for other potential pathogen infections is critical.
  • ● Avoid shaving pubic hair before the surgery by yourself to prevent infections.
  • ● The risk of intensive bleeding or endometritis can decrease with presurgical antibiotics medicines.
  • ● Your doctor’s medical views after report analysis decide the course of medication during and after surgery.

What are the Procedure Associated with LSCS?

  • ● The patient will have to lie down on the operation table, where local anesthesia (epidural or spinal block) will numb the lower region of the body. During severe emergencies, general anesthetic administration takes place.
  • ● Intravenous (IV) lines will help provide the required medication during the surgery.
  • ● A sterile solution is used to clean the surgical area before the procedure commences.
  • ● The surgeon makes the horizontal incision above the pubic line to expose the uterus.
  • ● The next incision made to the uterus helps remove the baby from the womb.
  • ● The doctor disconnects the umbilical cord, and the surgical team cleans and checks the baby’s body weight, breathing, and pulse rate.
  • ● The surgeon examines the blood clots (if any) and irrigates the cut introducing dissolving stitches in the uterus. The sutures to the abdomen region cover all the incisions.
  • ● The mother and the baby remain under observation at the hospital for two to three days before being sent home.

Once the baby is delivered, the doctor will perform tubectomy if the patient has signed the relevant consent form before the C-section. The procedure takes place only if the mother does not want more kids in the future.

 

What are the Surgical Results Associated with LSCS ?

  • ● The IV lines filled with medication enable the effects of anesthesia to wear off within a few hours post-surgery.
  • ● The doctors can prescribe painkillers based on breastfeeding needs. C-sections do not affect breastfeeding.
  • ● Both the mother and the baby are checked for vital body functions frequently.
  • ● The surgical stitches can be raw and prone to infections and tearing with stressful body movements.

What are the Post-surgical Care Associated with LSCS ?

  • ● On leaving the hospital, the feelings of fatigue, discomfort, pain, and weakness are normal for a few days.
  • ● Do not stress yourself too much with physical activities such as exercise, lifting heavy objects, or squatting.
  • ● Rest as much as you can.
  • ● Eat and drink healthy, homemade meals.
  • ● Avoid sexual activity for at least six to eight weeks postpartum to prevent infections and pelvic stress.
  • ● Apply creams or gels to the incision wound, and take timely painkillers if prescribed.
  • ● Walking will help relieve soreness in the lower body and facilitate blood circulation.
  • ● Avoid tampons or menstrual cup insertion for bleeding. Instead, use sanitary pads.

What are the Problems Associated with LSCS ?

Consult your gynecologist immediately if you observe any of the following problems postpartum:

  • ● Tearing of stitches, redness, or liquid discharge around the surgical wound
  • ● Heavy bleeding followed by fever
  • ● Increased abdominal pain and discomfort
  • ● Breastfeeding pain
  • ● Urinary infections

Certain women may experience overwhelming mood swings, loss of appetite, heightened fatigue, and a lack of interest after delivery. These may be the symptoms of postpartum depression and demands immediate professional attention.

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FAQ's

How long does the surgical procedure take?

C-section takes around 45 to 60 minutes if no other complications arise during the surgery.

What is the average cost of the surgery?

The surgery can cost between INR 10000 and INR 50000, depending on the patient’s medical condition.

Will the C-section affect intercourse in the future?

No, C-section will not hinder your future sexual experiences. However, doctors recommend avoiding sex at least six to eight weeks after the surgery.

Will the C-section surgery affect breastfeeding?

No, C-section does not affect breastfeeding. You can start breastfeeding once the anesthesia wears off completely.

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